Dr. Anita Simonds

Keynote Lecture:
Challenges in non-invasive respiratory support

Organisation (s)

  • Royal Brompton & Harefield Hospital, London UK
  • NHLI Imperial College London

Degree Subject/Professional Qualification(s)

  • Professor emeritus of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, NHLI, Faculty of Medicine Imperial College London 2022
  • FERS 2016 Fellow, European Respiratory Society
  • Professor of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Imperial College elected 2012
  • FRCP 1994  Royal College of Physicians
  • MD 1988 University of London
  • MB BS 1979 University College Hospital, London


  • Margaret Pfrommer Medal for  Long Term Mechanical Ventilation: Awarded by American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP/Chest) 2006
  • European Respiratory Society (ERS) Yernault (Lecture) award 2015
  • Association for Respiratory Technology and Physiology (ARTP) award for services to Respiratory Technology  2015

Present and Previous Positions Held


  • Honorary Consultant in Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Royal Brompton & Harefield Hospital August 2020-
  • Health Professional Medical Expert Advisor to Covid-Task Force, European Medicines Agency Sept 2020 –


  • Consultant in Respiratory & Sleep Medicine, Royal Brompton Hospital, From November 1990-July 2020

Academic Role

Supervisor MD (Res) Fellow L Spurr 2018- present.
Project: Multisystem and autonomic complications in neuromuscular patients using non-invasive ventilation. Psychosocial outcomes of shielding in covid -19. Funded by Brompton Breathers Trust Fund (TF 0452).
Previous supervision of 15 successful PhD & MD fellows with theses on topics in non-invasive ventilation and sleep disordered breathing.

Teaching: MSc Course in Cardiovascular and Respiratory Healthcare RBH/Imperial College – every course 2016-2021. SpR/SHO clinical teaching RBH. Also please see teaching activities/webinars: European Respiratory Society, Royal College Physicians, Royal College of Anaesthetists, British Thoracic Society.

Clinical Trials Involvement 2021

  • RECOVERY-RS NIHR funded, as co-investigator. Adaptive Randomised Trial of non-invasive respiratory strategies (CPAP v HFNO v standardO2) in acute respiratory failure patients with covid-19. Role: Trial Management committee member, co-investigator, wrote protocol, developed sub study on environmental contamination and co-author of papers. 2020-
  • BioALSa Trial of gene therapy in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (motor neurone disease) Role: Data monitoring committee member 2018-
  • PREPARE EU FP7 project of Pandemic Preparedness. Role: Workpackage Lead- CREATE, data synthesis, education and dissemination 2014-2021.  

Current Clinical Practice

After leading one of the 4 clinical medicine teams through the first and into second wave of covid-19 pandemic, working between AICU and the respiratory wards, I retired down from my fulltime NHS clinical position on July 31 2020 and took up Honorary Consultant in Respiratory and Sleep Medicine role on August 1 2020.

I retain full General Medical Council registration, take part in clinical governance, appraisal and teaching, see patients for second opinion advice, have worked on RBH Infection control and risk management guidance, and am a member of Royal Brompton ‘Supporting Ethical Decision-Making’ (SEDM) Team which convenes regularly to give advice on complex ethical issues (mainly in AICU or in respiratory or cardiac patients) 2020-     

I also continue to mentor recently appointed consultants.

Guideline Development

  • Clinical Lead for NICE Guideline on Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Hyponoea and Obesity hypoventilation syndrome in over 16s. March 2018 – 2021. Published August 2021 – see BMJ highlight paper Nov 2021.
  • ERS Living guidelines on management of hospitalised adults with covid-19 – coordinator and co-author 2020-
  • BTS representative on NCEPOD enquiry into Long term Ventilation in children and young people – March 2018-2020

Advisory/Expert Roles

  • European Medicines Agency (EMA): appointed Health Professional Advisor to EMA Covid Task Force with responsibility for regulatory decisions on vaccines and therapeutics used for covid-19. This takes up 3 x 0.5 day sessions per week– the role is to provide clinical context and input to regulatory decision-making. I have also taken part in the CHMP committee and am a lead member of the Health Policy Officers group of EMA.  Sept 2020-
  • WHO Europe : I an co-author of WHO Europe guidance on the twindemic and have provided webinars to eastern European countries on recovering respiratory services peri/post pandemic and use of telemonitoring.
  • NERVTAG  (New and Emerging Respiratory Virus Threats Advisory Group, UK): I am a contributing member and have given advice and presentations on aerosol generation from respiratory support therapies and optimising oxygen use in covid-19. 2020-

Positions of Merit

  • President European Respiratory Society (ERS) – 2020-2021. (Past President from Sept 2021-).
  • Current ERS roles – Covid Lead, Digital Lead, International Congress Chair ERS congress Barcelona 2021, Organiser Sleep & Breathing Congress 2021 and planned edition 2023, Lead: Digital Respiratory Medicine Summit June 2021, organiser Respiratory Failure and Mechanical Ventilation congress planned Berlin 2022. Developed multiple webinars on aspects of management of covid-19, sleep disorders, respiratory disease and digital medicine 2020-
  • International Respiratory Coalition steering group member 2020-
  • Inaugural Chief Editor ERJ Open Research 2015- 2018
  • Previously Editorial Board: ERJ, Thorax, Breathe

Invited lectures/plenary sessions given 2020-21

  • European Society for Swallowing Disorders Congress Oct 2020
  • Portuguese Society of Pneumology congress Oct 2020
  • British Psychoanalytical Society Oct 2020
  • Annual Hellenic Congress Dec 2020
  • Japanese Society of Resp Care and Rehab March 2021
  • Canadian Thoracic Society April 2021
  • Japanese Respiratory Society April l2021
  • Royal Society of Anaesthetists conference May 2021
  • European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) July 2021
  • European Society of Cardiology (ESC) congress Aug 2021
  • Brazilian Pneumology Society congress (SBPT)Sept 2021
  • European Respiratory Society congress Sept 2021 
  • Chest Congress US Oct 2021
  • European Society Intensive Care Medicine Oct 2021
  • Asian Pacific Society of Respirology (APSR) congress Nov 2021 
  • Royal College of Physicians Sleep/NIV Course Nov 2021   

Highlighted recent publications

Rajesh S, Wonderling D, Simonds AK. Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome and obesity hypoventilation syndrome in over 16s: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ 2021; 375:n2360 doi:10.1136

Cowie MR, Linz D, Redline S, Somers VK, Simonds AK. Sleep Disordered Breathing and Cardiovascular disease JACC State of the Art Review. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2021;78:608-624.

Simonds AK. How many more nights? Diagnosing and classifying OSA using multi-night home studies. AJRCCM Dec 2021 doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202112-2677ED.

Perkins GD, Chen J, Connolly BA……Simonds AK et al. Effect of noninvasive respiratory strategies on intubation and mortality among patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and covid-19. The RECOVERY-RS randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2022;327(6):546-558.

Publications in last 5 years :

Winslow RL, Zhou J, Windle EF, Nur I, Lall R, Chen J, Millar JE, Dark PM, Naisbitt J, Simonds A et al.

SARS-CoV-2 environmental contamination from hospitalised patients with COVID-19 receiving aerosol-generating procedures. Thorax 2021 doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2021-218035

Lebret M, Leotard A, Pepin JL, Windisch W, Ekkernkamp E, Pallero M, Sanchez-Quiroga M-A, Hart N, Kelly JL, Patout M, Funk GC, Duiverman ML, Masa JF, Simonds A, Murphy PB, Wijkstra PJ, Dreher M, Storre J, Khouri C, Borel J-C. 2021Nasal versus oronasal masks for home non-invasive ventilation in patients with chronic hypercapnia: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysisTHORAX, Vol: 76, Pages: 1108-1116, ISSN: 0040-6376

Schiza S, Levy P, Martinez-Garcia MA, Pepin J-L, Simonds A, Randerath W, 2021The search for realistic evidence on the outcomes of obstructive sleep apnoeaEUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 58, ISSN: 0903-1936

Humbert M, Simonds AK, 2021Looking forward: key initiatives to improve the care of rare diseases and streamline the delivery of medicines and vaccines in EuropeAMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LUNG CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 321, Pages: L616-L618, ISSN: 1040-0605

Cilloniz C, Simonds A, Hansen K, Alouch J, Zar H, Nakanishi Y, Levine S, Cohen M, Dela Cruz C, Evans SE, Sanguinetti M, Vila J, Manglano JD, Ferrer R, Criado L, Garcia JP, Correcher Z, Rodriguez-Hurtado D, Terrazas C, Munoz-Almagro C, Garcia-Vidal C, Aoun Z, Amirav I, 2021, Pulse oximetry is an essential tool that saves lives: a call for standardisationEUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 57, ISSN: 0903-1936

Chalmers JD, Crichton ML, Goeminne PC, Cao B, Humbert M, Shteinberg M, Antoniou KM, Ulrik CS, Parks H, Wang C, Vandendriessche T, Qu J, Stolz D, Brightling C, Welte T, Aliberti S, Simonds AK, Tonia T, Roche N. 2021Management of hospitalised adults with coronavirus disease 2021 (COVID-19): a European Respiratory Society living guidelineEUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 57, ISSN: 0903-1936

Schiza S, Simonds A, Randerath W, Fanfulla F, Testelmans D, Grote L, Montserrat JM, Pepin J-L, Verbraecken J, Ersu R, Bonsignore MR, 2021Sleep laboratories reopening and COVID-19: a European perspectiveEUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 57, ISSN: 0903-1936

Chen Y, Postmus D, Cowie MR, Woehrle H, Wegscheider K, Simonds AK, Boezen M, Somers VK, Teschler H, Eulenburg C 2021, Using joint modelling to assess the association between a time-varying biomarker and a survival outcome: an illustrative example in respiratory medicineEUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 57, ISSN: 0903-1936

Janssen DJA, Ekstroem M, Currow DC, Johnson MJ, Maddocks M, Simonds AK, Tonia T, Marsaa K. 2020, COVID-19: guidance on palliative care from a European Respiratory Society international task forceEUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 56, ISSN: 0903-1936

Trucco F, Carruthers E, Davies JC, Simonds AK, Bush A, Tan H-L, 2020, Inflammation in children with neuromuscular disorders and sleep disordered breathingSLEEP MEDICINE, Vol: 72, Pages: 118-121, ISSN: 1389-9457

Perkins GD, Couper K, Connolly B, Baillie JK, Bradley JM, Dark P, De Soyza A, Gorman E, Gray A, Hamilton L, Hart N, Ji C, Lall R, McGowan N, Regan S, Simonds AK, Skilton E, Stallard N, Stimpson E, Yeung J, McAuley DF, 2020, RECOVERY- Respiratory Support: Respiratory Strategies for patients with suspected or proven COVID-19 respiratory failure; Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, High-flow Nasal Oxygen, and standard care: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trialTRIALS, Vol: 21


Simonds AK, 2020‘Led by the science’, evidence gaps, and the risks of aerosol transmission of SARS-COV-2RESUSCITATION, Vol: 152, Pages: 205-207, ISSN: 0300-9572

Ferreira JP, Duarte K, Woehrle H, Cowie MR, Wegscheider K, Angermann C, d’Ortho M-P, Erdmann E, Levy P, Simonds AK, Somers VK, Teschler H, Rossignol P, Koenig W, Zannad F. 2020Biomarkers in patients with heart failure and central sleep apnoea: findings from the SERVE-HF trialESC Heart Failure, Vol: 7, Pages: 503-511, ISSN: 2055-5822

Wimms AJ, Kelly JL, Turnbull CD, McMillan A, Craig SE, O’Reilly JF, Nickol AH, Hedley EL, Decker MD, Willes LA, Calverley PMA, Benjafield AV, Stradling JR, Morrell MJ, MERGE trial investigators. 2020, Continuous positive airway pressure versus standard care for the treatment of people with mild obstructive sleep apnoea (MERGE): a multicentre, randomised controlled trialThe Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 8, Pages: 349-358, ISSN: 2213-2600

Schiza SE, Randerath W, Sanchez-de-la-Torre M, Aliverti A, Bonsignore MR, Simonds AK, Laveneziana. 2020, Continuous professional development: elevating sleep and breathing disorder education in EuropeBREATHE, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1810-6838

Javed F, Tamisier R, Pepin J-L, Cowie MR, Wegscheider K, Angermann C, D’Ortho M-P, Erdmann E, Simonds AK, Somers VK, Teschler H, Levy P, Armitstead J, Woehrle H. 2020, Association of serious adverse events with Cheyne-Stokes respiration characteristics in patients with systolic heart failure and central sleep apnoea: A SERVE-Heart Failure substudy analysisRESPIROLOGY, Vol: 25, Pages: 305-311, ISSN: 1323-7799

Chatwin M, Simonds AK, 2020Long-Term Mechanical Insufflation-Exsufflation Cough Assistance in Neuromuscular Disease: Patterns of Use and Lessons for ApplicationRESPIRATORY CARE, Vol: 65, Pages: 135-143, ISSN: 0020-1324

Gaga M, Stolz D, Chorostowska-Wynimko J, Welte T, Simonds A. 2020Respiratory medicine is not gender blindEUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 55, ISSN: 0903-1936

Ferreira JP, Duarte K, Woehrle H, Cowie MR, Angermann C, d’Ortho M-P, Erdmann E, Levy P, Simonds AK, Somers VK, Teschler H, Wegscheider K, Bresso E, Dominique-Devignes M, Rossignol P, Koenig W, Zannad F. 2019, Bioprofiles and mechanistic pathways associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration: insights from the SERVE-HF trialClinical Research in Cardiology, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 0300-5860

Woehrle H, Cowie MR, Wegscheider K, Vettorazzi E, Angermann C, D’Ortho M-P, Erdmann E, Levy P, Simonds AK, Somers VK, Zannad F, Teschler H, 2019, No effect of adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) device used on outcomes in SERVE-HFEUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 54, ISSN: 0903-1936

Simonds A, 2019, Confidences de SalonBREATHE, Vol: 15, Pages: 260-261, ISSN: 1810-6838

Cowie MR, Gallagher AM, Simonds AK, 2018Treating central sleep apnoea in heart failure: is pull better than push?European Journal of Heart Failure, Vol: 20, Pages: 1755-1759, ISSN: 1388-9842

Simonds AK. Eur Respir J. 2018 Nov 22;52(5). pii: 1801969. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01969-2018. Happy ever after? A new assessment tool for long-term noninvasive ventilation: the S3-NIV questionnaire.

Brill AK, Pickersgill R, Moghal M, Morrell MJ, Simonds AK. Mask pressure effects on the nasal bridge during short-term non invasive ventilation.ERJ Open Res. 2018 Apr 9;4(2). pii: 00168-2017. doi: 10.1183/23120541.00168-2017.

Simonds AK Influenza news from the frontline – what’s happening?  ERJ Open Research 2018 4: 00020-2018; DOI: 10.1183/23120541.00020-2018

Finkel RS, Mercuri E, Meyer OH, Simonds AK, Schroth MK, Graham RJ, Kirschner J, Iannaccone ST, Crawford TO, Woods S, Muntoni F, Wirth B, Montes J, Main M, Mazzone ES, Vitale M, Snyder B, Quijano-Roy S, Bertini E, Davis RH, Qian Y, Sejersen T; SMA Care group. Diagnosis and management of spinal muscular atrophy: Part 2: Pulmonary and acute care; medications, supplements and immunizations; other organ systems; and ethics.  Neuromuscul Disord. 2018 Mar;28(3):197-207. doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2017.11.004.

Mercuri E, Finkel RS, Muntoni F, Wirth B, Montes J, Main M, Mazzone ES, Vitale M, Snyder B, Quijano-Roy S, Bertini E, Davis RH, Meyer OH, Simonds AK, Schroth MK, Graham RJ, Kirschner J, Iannaccone ST, Crawford TO, Woods S, Qian Y, Sejersen T; SMA Care Group. Diagnosis and management of spinal muscular atrophy: Part 1: Recommendations for diagnosis, rehabilitation, orthopedic and nutritional care.  Neuromuscul Disord. 2018 Feb;28(2):103-115. doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2017.11.005.

Holger Woehrle, Martin R. Cowie, Christine Eulenburg, Anna Suling, Christiane Angermann, Marie-Pia d’Ortho, Erland Erdmann, Patrick Levy, Anita K. Simonds, Virend K. Somers, Faiez Zannad, Helmut Teschler, and Karl Wegscheider. Adaptive servo ventilation for central sleep apnoea in heart failure: SERVE-HF on-treatment analysis. Eur Respir J. 2017 Aug; 50(2): 1601692.

Atalla A, Carlisle TW, Simonds AK, Cowie MR, Morrell MJ, 2017, Sleepiness and activity in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction and central sleep-disordered breathing, SLEEP MEDICINE, Vol: 34, Pages: 217-223, ISSN: 1389-9457

Brill A-K, Moghal M, Morrell MJ, Simonds AK, 2017, Randomized crossover trial of a pressure sensing visual feedback system to improve mask fitting in noninvasive ventilation., Respirology, Vol: 22, Pages: 1343-1349

Carlisle T, Ward NR, Atalla A, Cowie MR, Simonds AK, Morrell MJ, 2017, Investigation of the link between fluid shift and airway collapsibility as a mechanism for obstructive sleep apnea in congestive heart failure, PHYSIOLOGICAL REPORTS, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2051-817X

Hind M, Polkey MI, Simonds AK, 2017, Homeward Bound: A Centenary of Home Mechanical Ventilation, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, Vol: 195, Pages: 1140-1149, ISSN: 1073-449X

McAuley J, Taylor R, Simonds A, Chawda S, 2017, Respiratory difficulty with palatal, laryngeal and respiratory muscle tremor in adult-onset Alexander’s disease., BMJ Case Rep, Vol: 2017

Mitchell S, Riha RL, Rohde G, Simonds AK, 2017, Continuing professional development: introducing the ERS International Certificate in Respiratory Sleep Medicine, BREATHE, Vol: 13, Pages: 11-14, ISSN: 1810-6838

|Patel S, Kon SSC, Nolan CM, Barker RE, Simonds AK, Morrell MJ, Man WD-C, 2017, Sept e pub ahead of print. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale: Minimum Clinically Important Difference in Obstructive Sleep Apnea., Am J Respir Crit Care Med

Simonds AK, 2017, Progress in respiratory management of bulbar complications of motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? THORAX, Vol: 72, Pages: 199-199, ISSN: 0040-6376

Simonds AK, 2017, The Road Not Taken: Missed Opportunities in Managing Acute Exacerbations of Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, Vol: 196, Pages: 124-125, ISSN: 1073-449X

Boentert M, Prigent H, Vardi K, Jones HN, Mellies U, Simonds AK, Wenninger S, Cortes EB, Confalonieri M, 2016, Practical Recommendations for Diagnosis and Management of Respiratory Muscle Weakness in Late-Onset Pompe Disease, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1422-0067

Chatwin M, Hawkins G, Panicchia L, Woods A, Hanak A, Lucas R, Baker E, Ramhamdany E, Mann B, Riley J, Cowie MR, Simonds AK, 2016, Randomised crossover trial of telemonitoring in chronic respiratory patients (TeleCRAFT trial), THORAX, Vol: 71, Pages: 305-311, ISSN: 0040-

Crimi C, Noto A, Princi P, Cuvelier A, Masa JF, Simonds A, Elliott MW, Wijkstra P, Windisch W, Nava S, 2016, Domiciliary Non-invasive Ventilation in COPD: An International Survey of Indications and Practices, COPD-JOURNAL OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE, Vol: 13, Pages: 483-490, ISSN: 1541-2555

Eulenburg C, Wegscheider K, Woehrle H, Angermann C, d’Ortho M-P, Erdmann E, Levy P, Simonds AK, Somers VK, Zannad F, Teschler H, Cowie MR, 2016, Mechanisms underlying increased mortality risk in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction randomly assigned to adaptive servoventilation in the SERVE-HF study: results of a secondary multistate modelling analysis, LANCET RESPIRATORY MEDICINE, Vol: 4, Pages: 873-881, ISSN: 2213-2600

McDermott CJ, Bradburn MJ, Maguire C, Cooper CL, Baird WO, Baxter SK, Cohen J, Cantrill H, Dixon S, Ackroyd R, Baudouin S, Bentley A, Berrisford R, Bianchi S, Bourke SC, Darlison R, Ealing J, Elliott M, Fitzgerald P, Galloway S, Hamdalla H, Hanemann CO, Hughes P, Imam I, Karat D, Leek R, Maynard N, Orrell RW, Sarela A, Stradling J, Talbot K, Taylor L, Turner M, Simonds AK, Williams T, Wedzicha W, Young C, Shaw PJ, 2016, DiPALS: Diaphragm Pacing in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis – a randomised controlled trial, HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, Vol: 20, Pages: 1-+, ISSN: 1366-5278

Rosenzweig I, Glasser M, Crum WR, Kempton MJ, Milosevic M, McMillan A, Leschziner GD, Kumari V, Goadsby P, Simonds AK, Williams SCR, Morrell MJ, 2016, Changes in Neurocognitive Architecture in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treated with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, EBIOMEDICINE, Vol: 7, Pages: 221-229, ISSN: 2352-3964

Savage HO, Khushaba RN, Zaffaroni A, Colefax M, Farrugia S, Schindhelm K, Teschler H, Weinreich G, Grueger H, Neddermann M, Heneghan C, Simonds A, Cowie MR, 2016, Development and validation of a novel non-contact monitor of nocturnal respiration for identifying sleep-disordered breathing in patients with heart failure, ESC HEART FAILURE, Vol: 3, Pages: 212-219, ISSN: 2055-5822

Simonds AK, 2016, Home Mechanical Ventilation: An Overview, ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY, Vol: 13, Pages: 2035-2044, ISSN: 1546-3222